LoRaWAN - Long Range Wide Area Network - is a MAC (Media Access Control) protocol for low power networks LPWAN, based on LoRa - Long Range - radio modulation technique.
LoRaWAN networks use a 'star of stars' topology where gateways forward messages between nodes and applications in the backend. Nodes use a single-hop wireless connection to one or more gateways.
Communication between nodes and gateways occurs on different channels and different data rates.
The frequencies that LoRaWAN uses dependends on geographic region. The LoRaWAN standard is maintained by LoRa Alliance
Classes of Nodes
LoRaWAN defines three classes of nodes:
Class A nodes: allow bi-directional communications, but downlink messages can only be transmitted after an uplink transmission by the node. This class involves the lowest power devices;
Class B nodes: allow bi-directional communication with scheduled receive slots;
Class C nodes: with continuously open receive windows, only closed when transmitting.
Today ResIOT Network Server support Class A and Class C nodes
LoRaWAN Security and Privacy
The LoRaWAN encryption protocol makes your data protected from attacks. Our standards are:
- AES128 keys
Instant regeneration/revocation of device keys;
Payload encryption for data privacy;
Protection against replay and man-in-the-middle attacks;
Two sets of cryptographic domains are present in LoRaWAN - the network domain and the application domain
The network domain is responsible for authentication of the end node data. The authorship is verified through an AES128 secret key shared between the device and the network server.
The application domain is responsible for guarenteeing the privacy of the device data. There is a AES128 secret key shared between the user application and the end node.